Founders of neurology



DR. CLAUDE BERNARD (1813-1878) Claude Bernarde of France, early in life came under the influence of Francois Magendie (1783-1855) who was considered the father of experimental physiology in France. As a student, Bernarde touched on so many areas in physiology that he was characterized by Louis Pasteuras "Physiology Itself." From research on the pancreas, the liver, he moved on to brain lesions with metabolic concomitants. In France he shared with Johanon Frederick Horner (1831-1886)- credit for describing the so called Claude Bernarde Horner Syndrome. He did monumental work on the physiology of smooth muscle
DR. JOSEPH FRANCOIS FELIX BABINSKI (1857-1932) Babinski, of French descent, had a thorough training in general medicine before entering the study of neurology. His bibliography is lengthy beginning with a treatise on typhoid fever (1882) and ending with a study on hysteria (1930). He worked with the great in neurology in France to include Charcot, Brissaud, Pierre Marie, Dejerine and others. He described in 1903 the associated fanning of the toes which would later be termed Babinski Sign. He also published on cerebrospinal syphilis, cerebellar signs and symptoms such as asynergia adiadochokinesia, on reflexes, on unilateral bulbar lesions and dystrophia adiposogenitalia.Babinski anticipated the neurosurgical era approaching France and of 2 of his favorite students- de Martel and Vincent he stated "I showed them the way to found French neurosurgery."
DR. EDUARD BRISSAUD (1852-1909) Born in France, Brissaud was known as the neurologists neurologist although early on he excelled as a neuropathologist. He was of the school of Jean Martin Charcot (1825-1893) and Charles Lasegue (1816-1883). He wrote scholarly on contractures in hemiplegia, on the innervation of the face, on the dissociation between voluntary and mimetic expression, on the analogy between the faces of those with parkinsonism and others with pseudobulbar palsy. He wrote expertly on parkinsonism, tics, spasms and on torticollis- each writing a gem. He even ventured into the field of psychiatry, dwelt on folklore in medicine, and he advised on asthma. He even developed a reputation as a medicological expert on conversion hysteria and his expert testimony prompted changes in the compensation laws of France.
DR. PAUL BROCA (1824-1880) Early on in life in his native France, at the tender age of 17 he started his monumental life as a prosector and he eventually became Secretary of the Societe-Anatomique. As a neurological clinician but also as a researcher, he wrote effusively- well over 500 presentations (none ever considered mediocre). A classic 900 page monograph on aneurysms came forth from his gifted pen and he even experimented with hypnotism on a series of surgical cases. Even with considerably opposition, he helped introduce the microscope in the diagnosis of cancer. But he is best known amongst so many other accomplishments for his contribution to neurology the concept of functional localization by cerebral convolution. And with his aged father looking on with silent admiration in a memorable meeting in 1862 he demonstrated the brain lesion of his first patient who had suffered from aphemie (renamed aphasia later by Armand Trousseau (1801-1867)). From this presentation and from other ongoing observations he concluded that the integrity of the left frontal convolution was responsible and necessary for articular speech (David Ferrier 1843-1928) is responsible for naming this region "Brocas convolution- the motor speech area.
DR. E. FRIEDRICH BURDACH (1776-1847) This German neurophysiologist in 1837 published a book on microscope anatomy of the nervous system. He named the globus pallelus (pale moss) and the putamen (shell). He described in detail the fasciculus gracilis in 1819. He will be remembered as a neuroanatomist with his name associated as in Burdachs fiber, fissure, nucleus, and tract. Finally, he localized vision in the posterior part of the brain
DR. JEAN MARTIN CHARCOT (1825-1893) In the contribution to neurosciences by France, this country claims the medical genius of them all. Charcot, whose brilliance as a clinician and a neuropathologist could never be surpassed. He created neurology as a firm discipline, made monumental studies in tabes, described, arthropathies "Charcot Joints", Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, was not only described but was named by him. His name comes forth as contribution to the knowledge of poliomyelitis, neuropathies (Charcot-Marie-Tooth) disease, nuiliary aneurysms, ankle clonus. He even wrote on hysteria, "blessed" hypnotism and was involved early on in the conflict over animal experimentation. He was a great teacher and many of his students became the "greats" in neurology.It has been said that Charcot entered neurology in its infancy and left it at its "coming of age.
DR. AUGUSTA MARIE DEJERINE-KLUMPKE (1859-1927) Born in America, she nevertheless studied medicine in Paris to become the first woman to be named "interne des hopitaux". She carried on the bulk of his work in private practice and in research when her husband Joseph Jules Dejerine died in 1917. She is known as a clinician and a neuropathologist. In 1885 she described the symptomatology of lower brachial plexus lesions.
DR. NIKOLAUS FRIEDREICH (1825-1882) Born in Germany and identified as a great neuropathologist, he also became as a distinguished as a great clinician in internal medicine with special aptitude in physical diagnosis. One of his great writings was a monograph on progressive muscular atrophy. Further, his work on hereditary spinal ataxia is monumental. Standard as a classic also is his description of paramyoclonus multiplex
DR. SERGEI KORSAKOV (1853-1900) Korsakov was born in Russia, received most of his education there, but he studied with Meynert in Vienna. He is universally known for the disorder which bears his name. Although he studied alcoholic polyneuritis with mental symptoms, his "Korsakovs psychosis" was the term used only when the mental disorder was accompanied by neuritis symptoms. He wrote on paranoia (paranoia hyperphantastica) as he described it in his textbook. He classified psychiatric illnesses. Known as a humanitarian, he improved conditions in mental institutions. He was the first great psychiatrist in Russia. He is considered a "moral genius" as were Pinel and Charcot.
DR. HERMANN OPPENHEIM (1858-1919) Oppenheim was born in Germany and after completing medical school showed great interest in physiology and later psychiatry. He published on tabes dorsalis, bulbar paralysis, lead interaction with associated neuritis, alcoholism, anterior poliomyelitis, syphilis, multiple sclerosis and even traumatic neurosis. In 1890 he opened his own center for clinical neurology. He wrote effusively on brain tumors, syphilis of the brain, coined the term "dystonia muscular in deformans." He was a great clinical neurologist, a great diagnostition, but he was also a fine therapist. His description of amyotonia congenita- or Oppenheims Disease is a fitting monument to this great scientist.
DR. HANS HEINRICH GEORGE QUECKENSTEDT (1876-1918) Born in Germany, Queckenstedt studied medicine in Rostock. His special interest in the physics of cerebrospinal fluid pressure led to his description of the Queckenstedt test for spinal subarachnoid block. He will be remembered both as a neurologist and a physiologist
DR. MORITZ HEINRICH ROMBERG (1795-1873) Romberg was born in Germany educated natively, but at the age of 22 wrote a classic on achondroplosia (congential rickets). He entered into neurologic studies soon after and with Peter Frank pioneered the study of the spinal cord. He worked in neuroanatomy and neuropathology but found the time to write through many editions. He wroteon diverse subjects such as causalgia, chorea, the convulsive state, tetary, facial paralysis. He described the classic, the "Romberg" sign and stated that no ataxic can stand still with eyes shut. Known as a great clinician he was also a great teacher.
DR. CARL WERNICKE (1848-1904) Wernicke was born in Tarnovitz, Poland but his family moved to Germany where he received all his education. Interested in psychiatry, traditionally he studied anatomy initially and neuropathology later. He published a small volume on aphasia which vaulted him into international fame. In it was precise pathoanatomic analysis paralleling the clinical picture. He is best known for his work on sensory aphasia and poliomyelitis hemorrhagia superior. Both of these descriptions bear his name. Further, his books on the disorders of the internal capsule and his textbooks on diseases of the nervous system perpetuate him.

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